“Time will be the fire we burn in.” Despite the fact that we may be unable to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have tried to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance turns into a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar can be a world apart, a reminder from the ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe within the eons into the future.
For people who seek to discover truths about the workings from the cell, holding back the floodgates of your time is an issue of significant proportions. Scientists tend to be thinking about very specific cell properties that take place at critical junctions within the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes from increasing while their properties may be exploited is similar to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one means to fix the problem in the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples to the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature from which all metabolic activity goes to a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments soon enough, returning over and over to research that instant in the past.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics is now an important industry that makes customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your numerous types of products to pick from expertise in those are most efficient may elude the average consumer. To be able to provide a review of the key producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are among those items that many people never consider until they quit working. Created to run for a long time without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels from the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists attempt to avoid the idea of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory through the day in the event it did. A career’s amount of samples can be lost within a afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the floor. Though this kind of scenario looms ominously inside the periphery of each and every researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for a day if it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in their refrigerators. While the gas industry has used this procedure for years, MMR Technologies was the 1st company to patent the technology and adapt it for small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is also able to expand via a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, as well as the cool gas passes back the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. More than one liquid-vapor separators may be incorporated within the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is ideal for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The unit allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and furthermore, as it has an internal power supply it can be used to the transportation of samples from storage facility to look into laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“As a user you would like to be aware of minimum temperature and exactly how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling ensures that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained throughout the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures right down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages may be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are supplied so that you can protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a lot of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality on this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to run longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can perform holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
In line with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also uses a special mixture of azeotropic gases which are non-flammable and allow on-site recycling. Additionally, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every round the clock, turning it away to ensure the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of earning ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In reality, with forty years of experience under its belt, So-Low is one of the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the industry. As soon as the Montreal Protocol started the phase out from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to work with Dupont Suva 95, the new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. In addition to its investigation of environmentally friendly refrigerants, So-Low has additionally developed a cutting-edge compressor that is designed exclusively for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the usual cylindrical containers. Each of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy accessibility, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, as well as a storage system adjusts to support a selection of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than 50 years of expertise in the business. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to only -120°C without CFC refrigerants and are available in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions on the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers in excess of 2 decades, starting with its production of the first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to provide a complete selection of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers currently available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use within preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The term dewar, originally applied to double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently used on an array of insulated vessels created for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending on their size, dewars usually rest on the ground or sit down on tabletops where samples can be simply accessed. Because of the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures as long as 1 year without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The standard thermal wall includes an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The dimensions and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that lots of companies build custom dewars to buy. Many of these companies along with their items are reviewed in the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE made laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are a small number of its customers. Blood and cell storage along with organ shipment are an equally large component of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the fastest-growing area of the market for the company’s products.
MVE was the initial company to formulate biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the total type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling up to 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that may be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers may also be a good choice for storing hazardous materials that might cross-communicate inside a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags that happen to be prone to break open.
Quantum Technology can be a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has been able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is that they can be customized.
One among Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries away from North America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a concern of concern. That is amongst the explanations why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator when the helium is retained in the system. The helium out of this refrigerator is reliquified for usage over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask brand of goods that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and each of these models is available by using a 24-month warranty. Other special options that come with the Thermo-Flask type of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples stored in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which can be distributed by a variety of companies throughout the us. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and provide features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and get capacities as high as 6,000 vials. As well as some of the standard features within the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks having a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, as well as an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a variety of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made of borosilicate glass protected by a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model includes a vented polyethylene stopper to reduce evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for added safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are designed for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times greater than 2 weeks. All of these units come equipped with a low-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Choices for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps to make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store large quantities of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each of these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which was created to maximize the number of vials which can be safely arranged into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials can be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are among the most often used and least considered implements inside the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out some day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the 1st that concerns the issue of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials claim that material is trapped in the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of the internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although studies have been conducted in order to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, along with the debate continues on.
One more consideration which comes under consideration when choosing cryogenic tubes is the material from where they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they be more difficult to warm which can negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes will also be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids is easy to remove with all the care, and several brands like Axygen are embracing new polished molds which do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but is also at the mercy of fracture on account of microchannels which could form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or even violent explosions. Plastic vials will also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not as great.
Gasketing has been a problem of some contention in this particular industry. Many cryovials come with a washer that keeps the interior pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas throughout the tube is enough to force cells and fluid from the lids of countless non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred as the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is additionally used, it comes with a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, an issue which had been demonstrated once the “O” rings on the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, gives a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures as little as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come built with attached leak proof caps that consist of a dual lip and a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts together with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® make of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and also other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be found in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, which may be used with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to guarantee the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has recently created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to use in lipid fractionation studies. It is actually a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube by having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of several outstanding highlights of this tube is that it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a variety of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that are silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to get sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, whilst the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof in the microcentrifuge approximately 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the company warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can result in an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for up to every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed a substantial catalog of merchandise for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® are available in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass which can be hermetically sealed. These are generally most suitable to the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction means they are exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored by using a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are designed for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with many different features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, as well as simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Most of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which are developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request of the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel that happen to be typical constituents of dyes. All of the company’s vials is designed to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system includes a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that the microtube is aligned within the centrifuge rotor to be re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. comes with an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that can come in a selection of sizes, shapes, and colours. The consumer has a choice of selecting from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, as well as the polypropylene material from where they can be constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures as well as temperatures and pressures in an autoclave. One of several areas that Sarstedt has paid particular awareness of in developing its line of products is the requirement for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes might be subjected to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical a part of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they could undergo changes that will make them tough to keep trace. Labels can become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular options for containing samples will be the canister and cane. Using this technique, several vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems usually expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time and energy to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation in the freezer, plus reduces the researcher’s exposure to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the volume of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The typical inventory configuration can be a cardboard or stainless-steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems let the user to arrange approximately 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International concentrates on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Intended for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems are available in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and colors to put almost any freezer. Clear lids allow contents being viewed without opening the containers, and they could be adjusted in certain models to fit tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that include storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in almost any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a number of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed in order to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless retainer systems suitable for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for simple retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes on an increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic Movable tank has responded with boxes and racks that are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids as a way to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is one of the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In reality, several of its items are sold as standard accessories with a number of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless steel and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be acquired as individual units or as complete racks to be used in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Probably, the cryogenic products one buys today could be the same ones that will be used for a long time. An investment made today may continue for a decade. In place, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not only buying products for their own reasons, they can be buying for their successors. The buyer must look into what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A little money which was saved initially by scrimping on vials or freezers might not appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards integrated to a large number of devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on the products a priority. Appointing a permanent position that is responsible for the cryogenic safety of your laboratory’s biological collection is probably the ideal way to assure the integrity of those samples.